Responsibility to Protect: Statement regarding the shooting of civilians in Abepura on 19 Oct 2011.

The Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect has today released a statement regarding the reports about the shooting of civilians in Jayapura, West Papua, on 19 October 2011. To read a copy of the statement, please click here.
For further information in relation to this statement, please contact Annie Pohlman ( and Jason MacLeod (
Annie Pohlman is Program Leader for Southeast Asia at the Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, the University of Queensland.
Jason MacLeod is based at the School of Political Science and International Studies, the University of Queensland, where he teaches conflict and nonviolent change. He is researching civil resistance in West Papua.

26 October 2011

Statement regarding the shooting of civilians in Abepura, Jayapura, on
Wednesday 19 October 2011.

The Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect appeals to the Indonesian
government to show leadership in protecting and upholding human rights in response
to continuing reports that members of the Indonesian military and police opened fire
on civilians attending the Third Papuan People’s Congress in Abepura, Jayapura, on
the afternoon of Wednesday 19 October 2011.

Reports from Kontras (The Commission for the Disappeared and Victims of
Violence) and Elsham (The Institute for the Study and Advocacy of Human Rights in
West Papua) in the Papua Province of Indonesia state that these shootings occurred on
the third day of the Congress, held on a field (Lapangan Zakheus/Sakeus or Taboria)
in Abepura. Throughout the Congress, military and police personnel maintained a
prominent armed presence. It is also reported that Forkorus Yeboisembut, Chairman
of the Council of Customary Papuan Chiefs, declared Papuan independence from
Indonesia during the afternoon of 19 October.

Subsequently, members of the police and military near the field allegedly fired upon
civilians and moved in to arrest members of the Congress. At least five people were
reportedly killed during this attack. At this time, Yeboisembut and other Congress
leaders – including Selfius Bobi, Edison Waromi, Agus Krar, Dominikus Surabut and
Gat Wenda – are still detained.

Kontras had confimed three of the victims – Daneil Kedepa, Yakobus Samonsabra
and Max Yew – died of gunshot wounds. Two others, Matias Maidepa and Yacop
Sabonsaba, were allegedly found dead behind the military headquarters in Abepura. A
team from the National Commission for Human Rights (Komnas HAM), headed by
Deputy Chairperson Ridha Saleh, arrived in Papua on Tuesday 25 October to
investigate the violence.

One week after this incident, tensions in Papua remain high. The Indonesian National
Police is now on the highest level of alert in Papua and 300 additional members of the
Police Mobile Brigade (Brimob) have been sent after Dominggus Awes, a local Chief
of Police, was shot at the airport in the highlands region of Mulia.

The Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect is deeply concerned about
reports of a violent assault on a peaceful and unarmed gathering of civilians in
Abepura. It is also concerned by the tone of discussion about the Papuan People’s
Congress in Jakarta. The Congress is seen as an attack on the government and has
been called a “coup” (1)  that must be “put down” with a military solution (2).   The heightened presence of security forces in Papua, in addition to inflammatory language used by public officials in Jakarta, are likely to escalate tensions in Papua. Thus, the potential for further violence is high and immediate action by the government should
be taken to contain further violence.

The Centre recognises and commends the leadership shown by Indonesia in
promoting human rights within the Southeast Asia region and so calls upon the
Indonesian government to respond quickly and effectively to these reports.

In particular, the Centre urges the Indonesian government to:

1. Support the National Commission on Human Right’s independent investigation to
determine the events that took place on the afternoon of Wednesday 19 October 2011
at the Third Papuan People’s Congress in Abepura.

2. Ascertain and provide clear details regarding the whereabouts and wellbeing of all
persons currently detained in connection with the attack on the Third Papuan People’s

3. An independent investigation be carried out into the actions of police, military and
any other State officials during the Third Papuan People’s Congress and, in particular,
into their actions on the afternoon of Wednesday, 19 October 2011, and subsequent
actions taken in connection to the incident.

The Centre acknowledges the great strides Indonesia has made under the leadership of
President Susilo Bambang Yudhuyono and expresses hope that the President will do
all he can to protect the rights to life and safety of all Indonesian citizens including
those in Papua.

1  Statement made by Djoko Suyanto, Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal and Security Affairs. See “Minister Defends Papua Response, Denies Govt Role in Deaths,” The Jakarta Globe, 21 October 2011, online at:
[accessed 22 October 2011].

2  See also statements made by the Defence Minister, Purnomo Yusgiantoro. For example, see Made Arya Kencana, Banjir Ambarita and Ulma Haryanto, “Jakarta Gives US Its Side of Story in Papua Deaths,” The Jakarta Globe, 23 October 2011, online at: [accessed 24 October 2011].

HRW: Independent Investigation Needed Into Papua Violence



Human Rights Watch logo


Indonesia: Independent Investigation Needed Into Papua Violence

Ensure Proper Treatment of Detainees


*** To download high-resolution pictures click here:


(New York, October 28, 2011) – Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono should immediately establish an independent investigation into the deaths of at least three protesters and the ongoing violence in Papua, Human Rights Watch said today.

On October 19, 2011, Indonesian police and the army fired warning shots to disperse approximately 1,000 Papuans gathered for a peaceful pro-independence demonstration in the Papua provincial capital, Jayapura, after one of the leaders read out the 1961 Papua Declaration of Independence. In an ensuing crackdown by the security forces on the demonstrators, at least three people were killed and dozens were injured. Witnesses said several had gunshot wounds.

“Papuans peacefully calling for independence does not justify a deadly crackdown,” said Elaine Pearson, deputy Asia director at Human Rights Watch. “President Yudhoyono has an opportunity to show Papuans that he’s concerned about their rights by seriously investigating these deaths.”

The involvement of security forces in the violence, as well as government denials of any wrongdoing, demonstrate the need for an independent investigation, Human Rights Watch said. While the military announced that the National Police were investigating the incident, the government has already said that the police and military acted appropriately. “The government did not find any abuse of power nor mismanaged approaches by the security officers,” said presidential spokesman, Julian Aldrin Pasha. “Police officers and security forces just accomplished their duties mandated by the state.”

Witnesses told Human Rights Watch that at about 2:30 p.m. on October 19, at the “Third Papuan Congress,” Forkorus Yaboisembut, chairman of the Papuan Customary Council, read out a 1961 Declaration of Independence, and said that he and Edison Waromi, the president of the West Papua National Authority, had been elected by the Congress as president and prime minister respectively of the “Democratic Republic of West Papua.”

About 30 minutes later, the event concluded and the crowd started to disperse, but about 1,000 people remained in the field, talking, and socializing. At approximately 3:30 p.m., the police and military, who had deployed anti-riot trucks and surrounded the field since midnight the night before, began firing military assault weapons over the crowds and into the air.

Witnesses said that most of the people in the field began running. Others stopped and surrendered, putting their hands up. The police then arrested approximately 300 people, ordering them to strip down to their underwear. Witnesses say that security forces pistol-whipped or beat those they arrested with rattan canes and batons, resulting in several injuries.


Many others fled into the woods near the field, with some using a road by a nearby school and military outpost. Witnesses said the police and military forces followed into the woods and there arrested numerous others.


The three reported deaths are:


  • Daniel Kadepa, 25, a law student at Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Hukum Umel Mandiri. A witness said that Kadepa died from gunshot wounds to the head after soldiers fired on him as he was running away.
  • Max Asa Yeuw, 35, a member of the Penjaga Tanah Papua (Papua Land Guard or PETAPA).
  • Yakobus Samansabra, 53, a member of PETAPA, had bullet wounds to his torso, reportedly in the back.

Several other PETAPA members had gunshot wounds.


Indonesian security forces should abide by the United Nations Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms, Human Rights Watch said. These which call upon law enforcement officials, including members of the armed forces, to apply nonviolent means before resorting to the use of force, to use force only in proportion to the seriousness of the offense, and to use lethal force only when strictly unavoidable, to protect life. The principles also provide that governments shall ensure that arbitrary or abusive use of force and firearms by law enforcement officials is punished as a criminal offense under their law.


Police have since released all of those arrested except for six men, five of whom were charged with treason, and one charged with possession of a sharp weapon:


  • Forkorus Yaboisembut, chairman of the Papua Customary Council, probably the most prominent pro-independence leader in Papua. Documents from Indonesia’s special forces, or Kopassus, leaked by Australian media in August, have revealed that Yaboisembut was on the top of the military’s watch list. Kopassus reportedly placed informants around Yaboisembut, including his neighbors and a journalist.
  • Edison Waromi, president of the West Papua National Authority.
  • Dominikus Surabut, secretary of the Papuan Customary Council in La Pago region.
  • Selpius Bobii, a social media activist, who organized the Papuan Congress. He eluded the police crackdown, but surrendered to police on October 20, accompanied by his lawyers and a Papuan journalist.
  • August M. Sananay of the West Papua National Authority.
  • Gat Wanda, a member of PETAPA, charged with possessing a sharp weapon.

The six men have had access to lawyers. Human Rights Watch has previously documented torture and ill-treatment of political detainees by police and prison guards in Papua, and the failure of the government to hold those responsible to account.

“Past mistreatment of Papuan political prisoners means the safety of these detainees is also at risk,” Pearson said. “Those detained should be treated fairly and have access to Indonesia’s human rights commission and local human rights groups.”

This incident follows a string of violent incidents in Papua since July, including:

· On July 31, a deadly clash between two local Papuan groups in Puncak Jaya, Papua, that claimed 17 lives. Leaders of both groups were planning to run for office for the same political party.

· On August 1, the fatal shooting of three Javanese migrants and an Indonesia soldier, in Nafri, Jayapura. Police later arrested 15 Papuan villagers, including several children, in Horas Skyline village, Jayapura, allegedly beating and kicking the detainees. All but two of those detained have been released without charge.

· On August 3, the fatal shooting of Pvt. Fana Suhandi, a member of the Army 753rd Battalion, as he guarded a military post in Tingginambut in Puncak Jaya. A sniper shot at a military helicopter that had arranged to transport his body from Puncak Jaya.

· On August 22, in Mulia, the capital of Puncak Jaya, the fatal shooting by a sniper of an unarmed motorcycle taxi driver near a post of the Army 753rd battalion. Media reports say the victim may have been an army informer.

· On August 23, Army Capt. Tasman M. Noer was stabbed to death by two men as he rode his motorcycle in broad daylight near his home in Abepura. A witness to the attack was beaten and hospitalized later the same day.

· Since October 10, the killings of at least four people at the Freeport mine site in Timika, southern Papua. More than 2,000 workers stopped work in July and again in September demanding wage increases. Freeport has replaced workers on strike with other miners. On October 10, one of the striking workers was killed by police and several others injured. Several police officers and two journalists were also injured in the melee. Unidentified gunmen shot dead three non-Papuan workers on October 14.

· On October 24, two unidentified men shot dead Mulia police chief, Dominggus Oktavianus Awes, in Mulia, Puncak Jaya. The men seized his pistol and used it to shoot him in the face.

Police investigations into these incidents have lacked transparency, and it has been difficult to gather information about the progress of investigations. Police efforts to hold the killers accountable have been frustrated by a lack of serious investigations, equipment, and manpower. In some areas, police have not gone to the crime scene or collected evidence due to concerns for their safety.

Documenting human rights violations during protests and other events is especially difficult because of restrictions, since 1962, on access to Papua for foreign human rights monitors and journalists. Human Rights Watch called on the Indonesian government to lift these restrictions. Human Rights Watch takes no position on the self-determination of the Papuan people.

“Police and military personnel have also been the victims of violence in Papua,” Pearson said. “But police investigations have been woefully inadequate, and there’s a need for independent investigations into this escalating violence.”

For more Human Rights Watch reporting on Indonesia, please visit:


For more information, please contact:

In London, Brad Adams (English): +44-7908-728333 (mobile); or
In New York, Elaine Pearson (English): +1-212-216-1213; or +1-646-291-7169 (mobile); or

In Washington, DC, John Sifton (English): +1-917-838-9736 (mobile); or

Neles Tebay calls for an end to repression and suppo

Bintang Papua, 26 October 2011The head of the Theology and Philosophy College, STFT, Pastor Neles Tebay, speaking after the acts of violence which occurred during the Third Papuan Peoples’ Congress, said that the violence had had a significant impact on the victims of the incident. He said that the security forces had entered the residences of the priests as well as the campus without prior permission and started looking for the Congress participants. This had resulted in material and psychological damage for all those who were staying at the STFT campus.

Speaking at a press conference after the event, he said that they were not concerned about the material damage which had been done but were concerned about the use of physical violence against people who had attended the Congress, which had also impacted on the broader community. He said that every effort should be made to ensure that such acts of violence do not occur again any time in the future. He stressed that the entire faculty of the STFT rejects the use of all kinds of repression in dealing with the problems. Using violence undermines the dignity of all concerned, above all the dignity of the victims as well as the perpetrators.

He said that it was very regrettable that the security forces appear to believe that they have the monopoly of the truth about what happened  and believe that the brothers and fathers residing on the STFT complex had acted wrongfully simply because they provided protection  to people who were fleeing and who were in need of protection, in accordance with universal principles in a situation where people’s personal safety was under threat. ‘It is the duty of the brothers and fathers to provide protection to people who are being chased and under threat from the security forces, in accordance with the principle of humanitarianism, and is not in any way connected with political issues.’

Pastor Neles called on Komnas HAM, the National Human Rights Commission, to investigate the acts of violence that occurred at the end of the Third Papuan People’s Congress in order to determine the extent to which basic human rights had been violated.

Recalling the commitment of the SBY government expressed on 16 August 2011 when the President said that  Papua should be handled with the heart, he fully supported  the call for dialogue between Jakarta and Papua. He said that dialogue would  be of tremendous importance not only as a way of ending the violence but so as to ensure that there would be no further repetition of violence in the  Land of Papua.

He called  on all people of goodwill to jointly  press for dialogue, for the sake of peace in Papua. Dialogue would make it possible to identify the problems and reach an agreement on the way to solve the problems in Papua in a way that is free of violence and bloodshed.

He also admitted that he was the one who had given the Congress permission to use the Zakheus Soccer Pitch as the venue of the Congress. He had done so because the Congress had been refused permission to hold the event either in the UNCEN Auditorium or in the Sports Stadium, GOR.

[Translated by TAPOL]

Theologians & Franciscan Friars about recent post-Congress Indonesian violence affecting their communities

unofficial English translation of the media statement published yesterday (26/10) by the Rector of “Fajar Timur” Catholic School of Philosophy and Theology and the Provincial of the Franciscan Friars in West Papua, Indonesia, in regards to the recent violence affecting their communities.  via ETAN


1.       Wednesday, 19 October 2011, around 9 am, the police, Brimob and the Indonesian army were on guard equipped with armoured vehicle, trucks, along Sosiri Street, Yakonde Street even at the back of “Fajar Timur” School of Philosophy and Theology (STFT). Within those streets the Catholic mission compound is located, including St Paul’s Secondary School and its teachers’ residence, “Nur Jaya” girls’ dormitory, JMJ nuns’ house, staff residence, “Sang Surya” Franciscan friary, “Tunas Harapan” Catholic dormitory, Zakheus football field (where the gathering spot of the congress), Seminary of John Vianney, “Tauboria” dormitory, Inter-diocesan seminary, the campus of Fajar Timur School of Philosophy and Theology, residence of priest staff, a chapel, a dinning hall and other facilities. The deployment of troops without any prior notice to the school made us worried and suspected that the situation would have turned into chaos and we would have been trapped in such circumstances. Therefore, around 10 am, we asked our staff to go home.

2.       Around 11 am, a unit of Indonesian army with heavy guns entered the campus and dormitories (the inter-diocesan seminary) from the hill at the back of the campus. The troops entered our property without asking any permission. They took rest in a multi-purposed hut. Some students gave reactions to them and asked them not to enter the seminary and campus area. So they then left and went back to the hill.

3.       Around 3.30 pm some members of the security services entered the dormitories searching for the participants of the Papuan congress who were running for safety. The security services entered the dormitories of the brothers from the Diocese of Agats. They broke the doors of the study room and bed rooms at the front side, entered and ransacked the computer room while saying, “Take that computer for evidence.” While window glasses were destroyed, another voice said, “Don’t do it. This is the mission complex.” The brothers from the Diocese of Agats were terrified and lying  face down hiding at the front room. A few congress participants who took refuge in the bathrooms were arrested. A harsh voice said, “Run?…get shot!” When the security services wanted to ransack the room at the back where students were hiding, an instruction came out saying, “Enough! Enough! Stop! Back off!” then silence. After waiting for a while, those who were hiding, got out and ran away to the residence of priest staff. When they got there, they realised that one of them was shocked and could not move from his hiding place.

4.       Meanwhile, inside the staff’s study room, Father John Jehuru OSA, Associate Dean and the Rector of Interdiocesan Seminary was stunned when a bullet penetrated his window. He was monitoring the chaos happening in Zakheus football field around 3.30 pm. The bullet razed his glass louvers and curtain, hit the wall, before dropped into a study desk. The bullet and Father John were only separated for about 50-75 cms. The crumbs of the bullet were found.

5.       The security services also entered other dormitories. In the dormitories of the brothers of the Diocese of Manokwari-Sorong, while searching for participants of the congress, they said, “Is it a mission house? Where are those idiot priests? Why priests hide criminals?”

In the dormitory of the brothers of the Archdiocese of Merauke, the security services arrested Agus Alua, a student, who was standing outside when the security services came in. We found a bullet pierced a window but we do not know from which direction the bullet came from. The security services came from the back of the campus with shooting. However, we do not know whether they were the same troops that came ealier at 11 am or not.

6.       Meanwhile in the staff residence, the troops were chasing the participants and threw tear gas. One of the troops entered and found the resident, a woman, lying face down and hiding under the bed. He asked, “Who are you?” and the woman answered, “I’m the resident here!”. “Get out, don’t be afraid” said the security. She came out and wiped her soured eyes saying, “I’m not afraid of you but of your bullets and tear gas”. Then he walked away.

7.       In “Sang Surya” Franciscan friary, many participants took refuge. Mr Forkorus Yaboisembut (the Chair of the Papuan Customary Council) and Dominikus Sorabut, now suspects detained in the police custody, were taking rest after the congress was closed. Father Gonsa Saur OFM, the head of the friary, was taken by surprised when he heard a shooting. He put his Franciscan habit on and came out standing at the stairs that connect the first and the second floor of the friary. Three members of the security forces and some others with plain clothes forced to enter the second level of the house but Father Gonsa denied them. He saw the security services with plain clothes sneaked into the dining room and the front room. They were carrying big guns and pistols. Due to the heavy pressure from the security forces, finally Father Gonsa had to ask those who were hiding to come out. While some of them came out, some others stayed hidding for safety. Father Gonsa asked the security, “You can take them, but don’t beat them.” In front of him, they were not beaten up but once they were out at the road, some of the security services beat them.

Six members of the security forces in plain clothes dragged Mr Yaboisembut and yelled at him. A woman was dragged too out of the friary. One of the security forces tried to penetrate the second level but Father Gonsa asked him to come down. About ten people surrendered but we do not know their identities. They were told to walk by squatting. There were three women among them. Outside the building, many security forces with or without uniform were hanging around with heavy weapons.

8.       In John Maria Vianey’s Seminary of the Diocese of Jayapura, many participants were hiding for safety. The security services searched for the participants and found Father Yan You, the head of the seminary. Three members of the security forces pointed his gun at Father Yan’s head one by one. They said, “You hide them.” He answered, “Kill me, shot me, come on.” Then they smashed the door, entered the room and took those who were hiding. Meanwhile, the brothers convened the participants at the hall. The brothers gave up their bedrooms for the participants for hiding. The brothers put their priest uniform on and protect the participants of the congress but when the security forces entered, some of the participants surrendered and they were taken away. The brothers told the security not to be cruel with the participants. One of the brothers, who tried to help those who were shot, got beaten with a rifle butt on his hand until it was  fractured and with a rubbler baton on his nose until it was bleeding. He had been arrested and detained at the Papua police custody overnight before released on the following day. He is being treated at the intensive care unit at the local hospital.

9.       When the security forces persecuted the crowd and members of the security guards of the Papuan Customary Council (Penjaga Tanah Papua), these people ran through the back of the library and tried to enter the staff room. But they could not make it because it was locked. So they broke two pieces of glass louvers. They ran to the hill but then were stopped with shootings coming from the top of the hill. So they went back to the bushes where they had come from.

Because of this incidence, the “Yerusalem Baru” inter-diocesan seminary and “Fajar Timur” School of Philosophy and Theology were physically and non-physically damaged:
1.       7 doors were ruined, 2 computer units missing, 2 trophies crushed, 2 chairs were broken, 2 sickles and 1 knife were missing, pots of flowers scattered. Window glasses of the dormitory of the Diocese of Merauke was razed with bullet, 2 pieces of glasses louvers of the staff room were smashed, 1 window glass of the staff room was pierced by bullet, window glasses of the seminary office demolished.

2.       One student is being treated in hospital because his face was swollen so there was no difference between his nose and his cheeks.

3.       The brothers remain terrified and worried. They are traumatized because the security services have acted inhumanely.

In regards to this incidence:
1.       We do not ask for compensation for the damaged or missing facilities. The violent acts of the security forces have destroyed the facilities and also infused fear and anxiety among the civitas academica of “Fajar Timur” School of Philosophy and Theology. The building and window glasses can be replaced but it takes a long time to heal fear and anxiety.

2.       We do not ask for compensation for the medical treatment for the brother who is in hospital.

3.       We firmly reject any repressive means to deal with issues because such violent act only undermines the human dignity of victims and perpetrators.

4.       We are deeply concerned that our campus, which is entitled to academic freedom, was penetrated by heavily armed security forces without any permission or prior notice.

5.       We regret that the monopoly of truth by the security forces who assumed the brothers had done something wrong by providing assylums for those who were persecuted by the security forces. We affirm that such an assylum was provided on the basis of the universal humanitarian principle, namely when a person is exposed to a life-threatening situation, s/he has to be given protection and defence. Therefore, the protection provided for the participants of the congress who tried to take refuge from the persecution and threats from the security forces was solely based on the humanitarian principle rather than any political interests.

6.       We appeal to the Indonesian Human Rights Commission (KOMNAS HAM) to investigate the violent incidence post congress to look at how serious human rights abuses have occurred.

7.       Based on the government’s commitment, as expressed by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono during his address to the nation on 16 August 2011, namely “dealing Papua with heart,” we support a dialogue to be done between Jakarta and Papua. This dialogue is highly important not only to stop violence but also to prevent any recurrence of violent acts in Papua. We ask all parties of good will to push the idea of dialogue between Jakarta and Papua.

8.       We ask for supports and solidarity from the members of the Catholic Church around the world to pray and support the implementation of dialogue between Jakarta and Papua for peace of Papua. Because only through dialogue, issues that underpin conflicts in Papua can be identified and proper solutions can also be found without resorting to violence and bloodshed.

Jayapura, 26 October 2011

Rector of “Fajar Timur”  STFT The Provincial of the Franciscans Order in Papua

Father Dr. Neles Tebay, Pr Father Gabriel Ngga OFM, Lic Theol.

Student found dead in Keerom

Bintang Papua, 26 October 2011Jayapura: On Wednesday this week at around 5.30am, people in the vicinity of Jalan Loreng Hostel in the district of Keerom were shocked by the discovery of the body of a student which was covered with wounds.The student has since been identified as Very Tebay, 24 years old,who lived at the Paniai Hostel , Perumnas III. He is thought to have died because of severe lesions in the face and the back of the head, as well as discharge coming from his left ear.

The student is thought to be the victim of a murder but the police have not yet  been able to identify the perpetrator. The chief of police in Abepura said that they were still trying to determine who was responsible for the murder.

The student’s body was first discovered by a friend of his, Kristian Rumere; 20 when he was on his way to the shops. Kristian who also lives in the students’ hostel  said he first thought that it was someone lying asleep on the ground, on the side of the road. with blood flowing from his head, and tried to wake him up, only to discover that the body did not move at all. He then reported this to the local authorities who confirmed that the person was already dead.

The body was subsequently taken to the Abepura Hospital, after the  local police arrived at the site of the crime to conduct investigations.

[West Papua Media note:  it is unclear at this stage if this student’s murder is related to the violent break-up by Indonesian security forces, including the Australian trained Densus 88 unit, of the Third Papuan Peoples’ Congress.  However, the head injuries sustained by the victim are consistent with the massive beatings to heads meted out by police, militia and military whilst breaking up the Congress.  West Papua Media has 12 confirmed reports of fractured skulls from Congress participants, but these reports are only of those who have sought medical attention.
According to participant Abraham Kareni (himself also with a skull fracture) in a video testimony sent exclusively to West Papua Media, many of those injured are too scared of arrest or killing by Indonesian forces to seek medical assistance.   However, without medical attention, victims with skull fractures are at great risk of death through brain haemorrhage or stroke, consistent with the injuries recorded on the victim.

*The victim Very Tebay belongs to a prominent family of West Papuan leaders and intellectuals – West Papua Media}

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